When do agencies need to conduct a privacy impact assessment?
If you are looking for a how-to-guide for undertaking a privacy impact assessment, click here.
The Privacy (Australian Government Agencies – Governance) APP Code 2017 (the Code) requires Australian Government agencies subject to the Privacy Act 1988 (Privacy Act) to conduct a privacy impact assessment (PIA) for all ‘high privacy risk projects’. A project may be a high privacy risk project if the agency reasonably considers that the project involves new or changed ways of handling personal information that are likely to have a significant impact on the privacy of individuals.
- provides guidance on how you can screen for potentially high privacy risk projects by completing a threshold assessment to determine whether a PIA is required
- sets out the benefits of conducting a PIA, even when a project does not meet the ‘high privacy risk’ threshold, and
- includes a template to assist you complete a threshold assessment.
This resource should be read in conjunction with the OAIC’s Guide to undertaking a privacy impact assessment (PIA Guide) and PIA e-learning course. The OAIC has also developed a PIA tool, which has been designed to guide you through the PIA process, report its findings and respond to recommendations.
What is a privacy impact assessment?
A PIA is a systematic assessment that identifies the impact that a project might have on the privacy of individuals, and sets out recommendations for managing, minimising, or eliminating that impact.
PIAs can help ensure compliance, facilitate a privacy-by-design approach and identify better practice. PIAs demonstrate a commitment to accountable and transparent privacy practices and build public trust and confidence in an agency’s programs and policies. The Code recognises this value by requiring agencies to conduct a PIA for all high privacy risk projects. More information about the benefits of undertaking a PIA is provided below.
Importantly, not all PIAs need to be long or complex. Instead, the approach taken in a PIA should be proportionate to the level of risk. A PIA is intended to be a flexible and scalable tool, which can be adapted based on the size, complexity and risk level of your project.
What is a threshold assessment?
A threshold assessment is a preliminary assessment to help you determine your project’s potential privacy impacts and give you a sense of the risk level, including whether it could be a ‘high privacy risk project’ requiring a PIA under the Code.
You should undertake a threshold assessment if your project involves new or changed ways of handling personal information.
A threshold assessment is not intended to establish the actual level of risk – that is the job of the PIA to assess in more detail. Instead, the purpose is to screen for factors that point to the potential for a high privacy risk, which will require a PIA to be conducted under the Code.
Not every project will need a PIA. A threshold assessment will quickly and easily identify projects with no, or minimal, information privacy implications.
Regardless of whether you proceed to a PIA, you should keep a record of the threshold assessment. The template below can help with this. The Code does not require you to publish a record of threshold assessments but there may be transparency benefits in doing so.
How to use the threshold assessment template
The template is designed to help you:
- identify whether your project involves new or changed ways of handling personal information, and
- screen for factors that may point to the potential for a high privacy risk project.
If your project is potentially high privacy risk, you will need to complete a PIA to consider the risk in more detail (including the likelihood and severity of potential risk). Further information is provided below on each part of the template.
Part 1: Does the project or initiative involve new or changed ways of handling personal information?
Part 1 of the template requires you to determine and record whether a project involves new or changed ways of handling personal information. This question requires a thorough understanding of all aspects of a project.
What is a ‘project’?
The term ‘project’ covers the full range of activities and initiatives undertaken by agencies that may have privacy implications. This could include:
- new policy proposals
- new or amended legislation or delegated legislation
- new or changed programs or activities
- implementing IT systems or databases or increasing the number of users of those systems
- new or changed methods or procedures for service delivery or information handling
- implementing artificial intelligence technologies, including automated decision-making processes
- restructures or changes to business-as-usual activities.
What is ‘personal information’?
‘Personal information’ is information or an opinion, whether true or not, and whether recorded in a material form or not, about an identified individual, or an individual who is reasonably identifiable (s 6(1) of the Privacy Act). The term ‘personal information’ encompasses a broad range of information held by your agency that could identify an individual, including employee information.
You can use the checklist in the OAIC’s What is personal information? resource to assess whether this definition applies to the information you plan to handle in a project.
What is a ‘new or changed way of handling personal information’?
This should be interpreted broadly and in accordance with its natural meaning.
‘Handling’ refers to how your agency manages personal information throughout all stages of the information lifecycle, and includes collection, use, disclosure, storage, destruction and de-identification.
You will need to be certain that any information handling in the project is similar to an existing practice in terms of nature, scope, context, purpose and risk before deciding that your project does not involve a new or changed way of handling personal information.
If your project involves a new or changed way of collecting, using, disclosing, storing, destroying or de-identifying personal information, you will need to consider whether your project has the potential to be a high privacy risk project (see below).
If your project does involve new or changed ways of handling personal information, select ‘yes’ and complete Part 2 of the template.
If your project does not involve new or changed ways of handling personal information, select ‘no’ and complete Part 3 of the template.
As a matter of best practice, you could include a description of whether the privacy implications associated with the project have previously been assessed and are being managed at Part 3 of the template. For example, where a project is not new, the privacy risks may have already been considered as part of a threshold assessment, a PIA, or other risk-assessment process and the privacy controls are current and working well.
Part 2: Determining whether there is the potential for a high privacy risk
Part 2 of the template will help you to screen for factors that point to the potential for a high privacy risk project.
What is a ‘high privacy risk project’?
The Code provides that a project may be a high privacy risk project if an agency reasonably considers that the project involves any new or changed ways of handling personal information that are ‘likely to have a significant impact on the privacy of individuals’.
You will also need to screen for privacy risks if you are developing new legislation to modify the operation of one or more Australian Privacy Principles (APPs), for example, legislation authorising a specified collection, use or disclosure of personal information for the purposes of the required or authorised by law exception to the APPs.
Similarly, you need to screen for privacy risks even where there is legal authority for the new or changed way of handling personal information as individuals may still be adversely impacted. This could include projects that seek to rely on an exception to the (APPs).
What is a ‘significant impact’?
A privacy impact in this context is anything that could adversely affect individuals’ information privacy. Impacts include interferences, such as the collection of new or additional types of personal information, or when the handling of personal information results in an individual losing control over their personal information.
An impact on the privacy of individuals will be ‘significant’ if the consequences of the impact are considerable, taking into account their nature and severity.
The consequences of a privacy impact could be significant for one individual or a group of individuals, for example, negative impacts on physical and mental wellbeing, reduced access to public services, discrimination, financial loss or identity theft. The consequences of the potential privacy impacts for a group of individuals may vary based on their individual circumstances, so you should consider whether some individuals may be more significantly impacted than others.
Sometimes projects can have a significant collective impact on society, rather than impacting on people individually. These collective impacts are likely to lead to broad public concern, for example, increased surveillance and monitoring activities, or the establishment of sensitive personal information sharing arrangements between the Commonwealth and other entities.
There is no definitive threshold to determine when an impact is ‘significant’ given each project will differ in nature, scope, context and purpose. Accordingly, agencies are advised to screen for factors that may raise a project’s risk profile. The table in Part 2 of the template is designed to assist with this.
Screening for factors that point to a high privacy risk
As mentioned above, a threshold assessment is not intended to establish that a project (or any feature of it) is actually ‘high privacy risk’ – that is the job of the PIA to assess in detail. Instead, a threshold assessment will screen for factors that point to the potential for a high privacy risk, rather than conducting a comprehensive risk and impact analysis.
Part 2 of the template includes a non-exhaustive list of general and activity-based risk factors which may point to the potential for a high privacy risk project. The template asks you to consider whether your project will involve:
- handling large amounts of personal information
- handling sensitive information
- sensitivities of the context in which the project will operate
- handling personal information of individuals with particular needs
- handling personal information in a way that could have a serious consequence for an individual or a group of individuals
- the following activity-based risk factors:
- using or disclosing personal information for secondary purposes
- disclosing personal information outside your agency
- using or disclosing personal information for profiling or behavioural predictions
- using personal information for automated decision-making
- systematic monitoring or tracking of individuals
- collecting personal information without notification to, or consent of, the individual
- data matching (linking unconnected personal information) or data linkage
- developing legislation which seeks to engage the required or authorised by law exception to the APPs.
You should consider these factors, or any other relevant factors not listed in the template, in the context of your project. These factors do not always mean that a project is high risk, or that the risk cannot be mitigated, just that there is the potential that the project may be high risk and so a PIA is likely to be required to assess the level of risk in more detail.
Whether your project has the potential to be a high privacy risk project is a contextual assessment based on your agency’s circumstances. It is the responsibility of each agency to be able to justify why a new or changed way of handling personal information does not have the potential to be high privacy risk.
Taking these factors and contextual elements into account, if you do consider that there is the potential that your project is a high privacy risk project, you should undertake a PIA.
It is important to note that this does not mean that your project cannot proceed. Rather, a PIA will help to ensure that privacy risks and impacts that may be associated with your project are identified and mitigated.
A PIA will also help you consider whether any limitation on the right to privacy is reasonable, necessary and proportionate to your objective. This may assist with the development of Human Rights Compatibility Statements for legislative projects.
If you answer ‘yes’ to any of the questions in Part 2 of the template, there is the potential that your project is a high privacy risk project and a PIA is likely to be required.
If you are uncertain whether there is the potential for a high privacy risk, you should consult your agency’s privacy officer and other relevant stakeholders where necessary. If you are still unsure, you should err on the side of caution and conduct a PIA.
If you do not consider that your project has the potential to be a high privacy risk project, you should record the reasons for your decision in Part 3 of the template and store the template where it can be referred to in the future.
The OAIC strongly encourages agencies to conduct PIAs as a matter of course for projects that involve any new or changed ways of handling personal information, regardless of their potential risk profile.
Benefits of conducting a PIA
PIAs are more than just a compliance exercise. Privacy issues that are not properly addressed can impact on the community’s trust in an agency and undermine the project’s success. The process of undertaking a PIA is a good way to assess privacy risks more broadly, and a way to demonstrate your agency’s commitment to, and respect of, individuals’ privacy. There may be many circumstances where a PIA would not be required under the Code, but an agency would still decide to undertake a PIA as a matter of best practice for these additional benefits.
The risk of not undertaking a PIA include:
- non-compliance with privacy laws, potentially leading to a privacy breach and/or negative publicity
- loss of credibility or community trust through lack of transparency in response to public concern about handling personal information
- damage to an agency’s reputation if the project fails to meet expectations about how personal information will be protected
- identification of privacy risks at a late stage in the project development or implementation, resulting in unnecessary costs or inadequate solutions.
The potential benefits of undertaking a PIA include:
- ensuring that the project is compliant with privacy laws
- reflecting community values around privacy and personal information in the project design
- reducing future costs in management time, legal expenses and potential negative publicity, by considering privacy issues early in a project
- identifying strategies to achieve the project’s goals without impacting on privacy
- demonstrating to stakeholders that the project has been designed with privacy in mind
- promoting awareness and understanding of privacy issues inside the agency
- contributing to broader agency risk management processes
- building community awareness and acceptance of the project through public consultation and publication of the PIA (where appropriate).
As mentioned above, not all PIAs need to be long or complex. Instead, the approach taken in a PIA should be proportionate to the level of risk. PIAs can be incorporated into your agency’s business as usual activities – they often fit into existing assurance, risk management and policy development processes. Integrating PIAs into your agency’s standard processes may help you to avoid duplication or unnecessary work by leveraging, or updating, existing processes to help consider privacy risks associated with future projects.
The flow chart below depicts the process you should follow to screen for high privacy risks as part of the threshold assessment process.
Threshold assessment template
 Privacy (Australian Government Agencies – Governance) APP Code 2017 (Cth) s 12